More and more people and enterprises are resorting to granulators or whole lines of granulation of waste and feed. And for the production of high-quality granules, you need not only to have workable equipment, but also know the rules of granulation.
Important parameters on which the quality and quantity of manufactured products will depend:
1. The fraction. The size of the particles should correspond to the installed matrix. Fragments are 1-2 mm smaller than the diameter of the holes in the matrix. To prepare any raw material for granulation, a grinder is required.
2. Humidity of raw materials. The optimum moisture content is up to 15%. If it is friable above the granule, it will quickly fall apart and may deteriorate due to moisture or mold. You can check the humidity level without special equipment. It is enough to squeeze the mixture in a fist.
As a result, if after clenching the fist:
• raw materials crumble without lumps - can be granulated;
• retains the shape of a lump - the moisture rate is exceeded.
3. Homogeneity. The homogeneity of the mixture throughout the volume, composition, humidity and certain size fractions. The mixer helps to ensure good uniformity.
4. The purity of the raw materials. This implies the absence of foreign objects in the biomass: earth, stones, metal particles, all that can lead to premature equipment failure.
Attention to the characteristics of biomass will not disappoint as a result and not incur losses.
Compound feed consists of a crushed mixture of vegetable and animal origin: cereals and oilseeds, beans, hay, straw, grain waste, meat and meat and bone meal. For the normal growth and development of animals, it is worth adding vitamins, macronutrients and amino acids.
First you need to decide who is preparing the granulate. For example, pellets with a diameter of 2-3 mm are suitable for feeding birds, and 4 mm for rabbits, 6-8 mm for cattle and pigs.
For granulation of feed use granulators for:
As part of a semi-automated feed granulation line, granulators with an engine power of 11 and 22 kW are suitable.
For each type of animal, you need to use a special compound feed recipe that matches their needs. For example, for turkeys, the maximum percentage of salt added is 90% lower than for chickens. Our customers receive the right recipe with the equipment.
Sawdust is formed by chopping wood. Sawmills, furniture factories regularly produce such waste. It is a good biofuel with high calorific value and low cost. Sawdust granules are used in home pyrolysis boilers, as well as in industrial ones.
The basis of fuel pellets is coniferous or oak sawdust, only they contain a fairly large amount of lignin (natural glue). They can be used in pure form. The remaining species are granulated only if the recipe contains at least 60% of needles or oak.
For those who prefer to granulate wood waste (sawdust from knots, roots, thin branches) or process hornbeam, ash, acacia, there is a cheaper recipe. As a cementitious composition, 10-20% of soy, rape, and sunflower wastes are added to sawdust.
A granulator with an engine power of 15-22 kW is suitable for processing this raw material. The output of the granules is 100-250 kg/h. When there are a lot of sawdust, it is better to choose a pellet granulation line that automates the process.
Another type of cheap fuel is raw material from scraps of wood fiber boards (MDF, HDF, OSB). Compared to wood pellets, the ash content of such biomass is slightly higher. But on the other hand, granulation of residues allows you to get rid of garbage at the enterprise and reduce the cost of heating the premises.
MDF and similar materials already contain natural glue, so you do not need to add oak / pine sawdust to them. But the equipment will need special. When ordering a granulator in “Artmash”, it is enough to indicate the type of raw material and the factory will select for you the countersink angle of the matrix channels and provide a suitable pellet length (due to the thickness of the matrix).
Straw is a dry stalk of crops. Pellets from it are used as fuel, although in comparison with granular sawdust, their calorific value is slightly lower. But straw in pellets has 10 times greater calorific value than in its original form. A husk has a higher calorific value than sawdust.
In its pure form, straw and husks of sunflower seeds are poorly granulated. In order for pellets to be dense and smooth, it is necessary to add 10-15% of soy, rape, and sunflower waste (core, ragweed, stems) to the raw materials. In some cases, starch is recommended, but such a binder is more expensive.
Feed pellets from straw are not made, hay (mowed and dried stems and leaves of herbaceous plants) is better suited. When preparing the feed mixture according to the recipe, grain, various vitamins, premixes are added to the crushed hay and all components are combined in a mixer.
For processing hay, straw and husks, granulators with an engine power of 11 kW and 22 kW are suitable. In the first case, the productivity will be 100 kg/h, in the second - 250-300 kg / h. The mixture is suitable for producing granules with a diameter of 6 to 8 mm.
Grain wastes are husks, seeds of weeds, particles of leaves and stems, damaged and too small grains. They are formed during the primary processing of grain: drying, cleaning and sorting.
Grain wastes of wheat, rye, oats, and other food crops have high nutritional value, therefore, they are used for the production of granular feed. Grain wastes of industrial crops (rapeseed, soybeans) have high calorific value (19 MJ/kg or 4600 kcal/kg) and low ash content (8%), they are used as cheap fuel.
A granulator with an engine power of 4 kW to 37 kW is suitable for processing grain waste. The moisture content of the raw materials is 10-15%. Depending on the future use, the size of the granules can vary from 6 to 8 mm. The productivity of granulators in the processing of grain waste from 80 kg / h (for household) to 500 kg / h (for industrial models).
Sunflower waste (stalks, fibrous core, ragweed) is perfectly processed into fuel pellets. If earlier they were simply burned in the fields, now they are used for heating their own production or even sold.
For granulation of sunflower waste, granulators suitable for:
Fuel pellets from pure sunflower waste contain fat, so they are not suitable for all boilers. It is best to use such residues as an additive to hard-granulated sawdust or straw.
We talked only about the features of the most common raw materials for granulation. If you are working with a different biomass, you can consult our managers. More than 50 recipes of mixtures from a wide variety of raw materials (dried fruits, litter, needles, clay) have already been tested in production, so we can certainly help you.